Jumat, 27 Agustus 2010

Introduction Nemathelminthes

CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION

A. Background
The nematodes or roundworms (phylum Nematoda) are the most diverse phylum of pseudocoelomates, and one of the most diverse of all animals. Nematode species are very difficult to distinguish, over 28.000 have been described, of which over 16,000 are parasitic. It has been estimated that the total number of nematode species might be approximately 1,000,000. Unlike cnidarians or flatworms, roundworms have a digestive system that is like a tube with openings at both ends. Nematodes have successfully adapted to nearly every ecosystem from marine to fresh water, from the polar regions to the tropics, as well as the highest to the lowest of elevations. They are ubiquitous in freshwater, marine, and terrestrial environments, where they often outnumber other animals in both individual and species counts, and are found in locations as diverse as Guam and oceanic trenches. They represent, for example, 90% of all life on the seafloor of the Earth. Their many parasitic forms include pathogens in most plants and animals (including humans). Some nematodes can undergo cryptobiosis. In free-living species, development usually consists of four molts of the cuticle during growth. Different species feed on materials as varied as algae, fungi, small animals, fecal matter, dead organisms and living tissues. Free-living marine nematodes are important and abundant members of the meiobenthos. They play an important role in the decomposition process, aid in recycling of nutrients in marine environments and are sensitive to changes in the environment caused by pollution. One roundworm of note is "Caenorhabditis elegans", which lives in the soil and has found much use as a model organism. "C. elegans" has had its entire genome sequenced, as well as the developmental fate of every cell determined, and every neuron mapped. Nematodes commonly parasitic on humans include ascarids (Ascaris), filarias, hookworms, pinworms (Enterobius) and whipworms (Trichuris trichiura). The species Trichinella spiralis, commonly known as the trichina worm, occurs in rats, pigs, and humans, and is responsible for the disease trichinosis. Baylisascaris usually infests wild animals but can be deadly to humans as well. Dirofilaria immitus are Heartworms known for causing Heartworm disease by inhabiting the hearts, arteries, and lungs of dogs and some cats. Haemonchus contortus is one of the most abundant infectious agents in sheep around the world, causing great economic damage to sheep farms. In contrast,entomopathogenic nematodes parasitize insects and are considered by humans to be beneficial. One form of nematode is entirely dependent upon fig wasps, which are the sole source of fig fertilization. They prey upon the wasps, riding them from the ripe fig of the wasp's birth to the fig flower of its death, where they kill the wasp, and their offspring await the birth of the next generation of wasps as the fig ripens.
It is important for us to learn more about phylum nematoda since it is able to give adventage and also harmful to human. By understanding more about it, we will be able to find the way to maximize the adventage and minimize the harmful effect of nemathelminthes to human's life. Thus, it would be a wise decision for us to do the experiment which was entitled "Nematelminthes".

B. The aim of experiment
C. Adventage

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