Selasa, 12 April 2011

Nutritions

1. Vitamin

The foods which are rich in vitamins are fruits, vegetables, juice and also milk. Vitamins are substances which can not be made by our body. It just be able to be found by consuming various foods. Our body needs them to work properly, so we grow and develop just like we should. There are several kinds of vitamin, each one has a special role to play. For example: vitamin D in milk helps the bones, Vitamin A in carrots helps us to see at night, vitamin C in oranges helps the body heal if we you get a cut, B vitamins in leafy green vegetables help your body make protein and energy.

There are two types of vitamins: fat soluble and water soluble. Vitamins A, D, E, and K are all fat-soluble vitamins. When we eat foods that contain fat-soluble vitamins, the vitamins are stored in the fat tissues and in liver. They wait around in our body until the body needs them. Meanwhile, water soluble vitamin includes vitamin C and the big group of B vitamins (Thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, pyridoxine, folic acid, cobalamin, biotin, and panthothenic acid). When we eat food which have water-soluble vitamins, the vitamins do not get stored as much in body. Instead, they travel through the bloodstream.

Vitamin A plays a really big part in eyesight. It's great for night vision. Vitamin A helps to see in color. In addition, it helps to grow properly and aids in healthy skin. The food which are rich in vitamins A : milk fortified with vitamin A, liver, orange fruits and vegetables (like cantaloupe, carrots, sweet potatoes), dark green leafy vegetables (like kale, collards, spinach).

Vitamin B. There's more than one B vitamin. Here's the list: B1, B2, B6, B12, niacin, folic acid, biotin, and pantothenic acid. The B vitamins are important in metabolic. This means that they help make energy and set it free when the body needs it. This group of vitamins is also involved in making red blood cells, which carry oxygen throughout the body. Which foods are rich in vitamin B? whole grains, such as wheat and oats, fish and seafood, poultry and meats, eggs, dairy products, like milk and yogurt, leafy green vegetables, beans and peas.

Vitamin C. This vitamin is important for keeping body tissues, such as gums and muscles in good shape. This vitamin also helps the body to resist infection. This means that even though we can't always avoid getting sick, vitamin C makes it a little harder for our body to become infected with an illness. Foods which are rich in vitamin C, are as follows: citrus fruits (like oranges), cantaloupe, strawberries, tomatoes, broccoli, cabbage, kiwi fruit, and sweet red peppers

Vitamin D is the vitamin you need for strong bones. It's also great for forming strong teeth. Vitamin D even lends a hand to an important mineral, since it helps the body absorb the amount of calcium it needs. Foods which are rich in vitamin D: milk fortified with vitamin D, fish, egg yolks, liver, and fortified cereal.

Vitamin E. This vitamin maintains a lot of body's tissues, like the ones in our eyes, skin, and liver. It protects our lungs from becoming damaged by polluted air. And it is important for the formation of red blood cells. Foods which are rich in vitamin E, are as follows: whole grains, such as wheat and oats, wheat germ, leafy green vegetables, sardines, egg yolks, nuts and seeds.

Vitamin K is the substance which enable the blood clotting. This is when certain cells in blood act like glue and stick together at the surface of the cut to help stop the bleeding. Foods which are rich in vitamin K, are as follows: leafy green vegetables, dairy products, like milk and yogurt, broccoli, and soybean oil.

2. MINERAL

Figure: High Mineral Foods

The foods which are rich in minerals are vegetables, nuts, and also fruits. Minerals are the spark plugs of life because they are required to activate thousands of enzyme reactions within the body. In a way they are more important than vitamins since plants manufacture vitamins but minerals must be obtained from the soil. If the mineral is not in the soil, it can not possibly be in the plant.

Minerals have two main functions in the body. First of all, many minerals are responsible for building the structures in the body like bones, and teeth. Secondly, minerals help to regulate bodily processes. Minerals can be classified into macroelements and microelements. Macroelements are those elements that are needed in relatively large amounts by the body and trace elements (microelements) are those that are needed in small 'trace' amounts.

Some macroelements that are needed by the body are calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chlorine and sulfur. Both are needed for development of bones and teeth. Calcium is also important in regulating blood clotting, muscle tone and nerve function. Phosphorous helps in providing energy to work (ATP and ADP contain a phosphate-Adenosine TriPhosphate and Diphosphate).

Sodium is an osmoregulator (controls water potential) and also helps muscles to contract and relax. Potassium has similar functions but it is also responsible for regulating heart beat.

Chlorine is part of hydrochloric acid which is important for digestion of protein in the stomach and sulfur is an important constituents of all proteins (structural, enzymes, hair and nails).

The trace elements needed by the body and their uses are as follows: Iron – (transport of oxygen in the blood), Manganese (for bones), Iodine (regulates rate of metabolism), Copper (facilitates absorption and function of iron), Flourine (decreases tooth decay), Zinc (important regulator), Cobalt (a part of Vitamin B12), Chromium (regulates glucose metabolism)

List of Minerals and Their Function

Calcium

Builds bones and teeth, muscle contraction, heart action, nerve impulses, blood clotting

Magnesium

Bones, liver, muscles, transfer of intercellular water, alkaline balance, neuromuscular activity

Sodium

Electrolyte balance, body fluid volume, nerve impulse condition

Potassium

Cell membrane potential, nerve impulse conduction, heart rhythm, acid base balance

Copper

Hemoglobin formation, production of RNA, elastic tissue formation, cholesterol utilization, oxidase enzyme activator

Zinc

Protein synthesis, carbon dioxide transport, sexual function, insulin storage, carbohydrate metabolism, wound healing

Iron

Hemoglobin formation, electron transport, oxygen transport, enzyme activator

Manganese

Carbohydrate metabolism, protein metabolism, connective tissue, joint fluid production, nerve tissue, Vitamin B1 utilization

Chromium

Glucose utilization, insulin activity, heart muscle, cholesterol utilization

Phosphorus

Builds bones and teeth, energy production, acid-base balance, necessary in metabolism and cell membranes, calcium absorption

Molybdenum

Enzyme activator, uric acid formation, oxidative enzymes

Selenium

Peroxidase scavenger, glutathione peroxidase, anti-carcinogenic, Vitamin F synergist

Silicon

Bone formation, collagen formation, cartilage formation, elastic tissue

Boron

Reduces calcium loss

Vanadium

Strength of bones and teeth, lowers blood lipids, inhibits cholesterol synthesis

Tin

Growth, protein synthesis

Nickel

Activates some liver enzymes

Source: Natures Prescription Milk by Gloria Gilbere

3. carbohydrate

Carbohydrates are macromolecules which provide body with energy. Foods high in carbohydrate include fruits, sweets, soft drinks, breads, pastas, beans, potatoes, bran, rice, and cereals. Carbohydrates are a common source of energy in living organisms. Besides that, carbohydrates are important components of building muscle. Let’s take a closer look at the functions of carbohydrates:

Carbohydrates spare protein so that protein can concentrate on building, repairing, and maintaining body tissues instead of being used up as an energy source.

For fat to be metabolized properly, carbohydrates must be present. If there are not enough carbohydrates, then large amounts of fat are used for energy. The body is not able to handle this large amount so quickly, so it accumulates ketone bodies, which make the body acidic. This causes a condition called ketosis.

Carbohydrate is necessary for the regulation of nerve tissue and is the ONLY source of energy for the brain.

Certain types of carbohydrates encourage the growth of healthy bacteria in the intestines for digestion.

Some carbohydrates are high in fibre, which helps prevent constipation and lowers the risk for certain diseases such as cancer, heart disease and diabetes.

The functions of carbohydrates are multiple and it is owing to this fact that it becomes all the more necessary to incorporate carbohydrates in your meal. For instant energy generation, sugars and starch act as the perfect fuel that enable you to carry out your physical activities efficiently and effectively.

Based on the effects on risk of heart disease and obesity, the Institute of Medicine recommends that American and Canadian adults get between 45–65% of dietary energy from carbohydrates. The Food and Agriculture Organization and World Health Organization jointly recommend that national dietary guidelines set a goal of 55–75% of total energy from carbohydrates, but only 10% directly from sugars (their term for simple carbohydrates).

4. PROTEINs

The foods which are rich in proteins are milk, eggs, cheese, fish, and meat. Proteins are biochemical compounds consisting of one or more polypeptides typically folded into a globular or fibrous form in a biologically functional way. Protein has a large number of important functions in the human body—and in fact, the human body is about 45% protein. It’s an essential macromolecule without which our bodies would be unable to repair, regulate, or protect themselves.

Functions of proteins in our body are as follows:

* Required for building and repair of body tissues (including muscle)

* Enzymes, hormones, and many immune molecules are proteins

* Protein is a source of energy.

* Protein helps keep skin, hair, and nails healthy.

* Protein, like most other essential nutrients, is absolutely crucial for overall good health.

The function of proteins as enzymes is perhaps their best-known function. Enzymes are catalysts—they initiate a reaction between themselves and another protein, working on the molecule to change it in some way. The enzyme, however, is itself unchanged at the end of the reaction. Enzymes are responsible for catalyzing reactions in processes such as metabolism, DNA replication, and digestion.

5. Fats

The foods which are rich in fats are cheese, meat, and also high-fat-milk. Fats consist of a wide group of compounds that are generally soluble in organic solvents and largely insoluble in water. Chemically, fats are generally triesters of glycerol and fatty acids. Fats may be either solid or liquid at room temperature, depending on their structure and composition. Although the words "oils", "fats", and "lipids" are all used to refer to fats, "oils" is usually used to refer to fats that are liquids at normal room temperature, while "fats" is usually used to refer to fats that are solids at normal room temperature. "Lipids" is used to refer to both liquid and solid fats, along with other related substances.

The functions of fats in our body are as follows:

· Fats play a vital role in maintaining healthy skin and hair, insulating body organs against shock, maintaining body temperature, and promoting healthy cell function.

· Fats also serve as energy stores for the body, containing about 37.8 kilojoules (9 Calories) per gram of fat. They are broken down in the body to release glycerol and free fatty acids. The glycerol can be converted to glucose by the liver and thus used as a source of energy.

· Fat also serves as a useful buffer towards a host of diseases. When a particular substance, whether chemical or biotic—reaches unsafe levels in the bloodstream, the body can effectively dilute—or at least maintain equilibrium of—the offending substances by storing it in new fat tissue. This helps to protect vital organs, until such time as the offending substances can be metabolized and/or removed from the body by such means as excretion, urination, accidental or intentional bloodletting, sebum excretion, and hair growth.

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